The earth is made of five different layers. The top and thinnest layer is called the crust. Under the crust is the mantle. The mantle is made of hot, molten rock. Sometimes Earth’s crust has cracks, and things really heat up! This is called volcanic activity.
Geysers and Hot Springs
Geysers and hot springs are types of volcanic activity. They happen when magma — that hot, molten rock under Earth’s crust — heats water that naturally occurs in the ground.
In hot springs, the water sits at the surface of Earth’s crust. The temperature of hot springs vary. Some are safe for people to swim in, and others are so hot they are too dangerous to touch.
Geysers are a type of hot spring, but not the kind you would want to swim in. Water is heated by magma under the earth’s crust, but what makes a geyser special is that the water erupts from the spring and shoots steam and water into the air. Geysers can be as hot as 450 degrees Fahrenheit.
Volcanoes are places where Earth’s crust is broken. Magma from within the earth makes its way through to the surface. These eruptions can be very dangerous. Some
eruptions are so violent they spray hot magma and super-heated rocks all around the surrounding areas. Some eruptions are much slower, and magma slowly leaks from